Golden Prism Jewellery

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Blue Sapphires

Colour: Blue in various hues, colourless, pink, orange, yellow, green, purple, black
Colour of streak: White
Mohs’ hardness: 9
Specific gravity: 3.99-4.00
Cleavage: None
Fracture: Small conchoidal, uneven, splintery
Crystal system: Hexagonal (trigonal) dipyramidal, barrel-shaped, tabloid-shaped
Transparency: Transparent, opaque
Fluorescence: Blues: (Purple) None. Yellows from Sri Lanka: weak; orange Colourless: orange-yellow or purple

Sapphires come in various shades but blue is their most well-known colour.  The colour of fine blue sapphires can be described as a vivid medium dark violet to purplish blue.  
Colour in gemstones breaks down into three components:  hue, saturation and tone.  Hue is most commonly understood as the “colour” of the gemstone.  Saturation refers to the vividness of the colour and tone is the lightness to darkness of the colour.  Blue sapphire exists in various mixtures of its primary (blue) and secondary hues, various tone levels (shades) and at various levels of saturation (vividness).
Sapphires belong to the family of minerals known as corundum. They are among the hardest natural gemstone in existence, reaching 9 on Mohs’ Scale of hardness, second only to diamond.